The Crystal Palace striker netted a hat-trick in a 6-0 Group H win, the first of which was also the quickest in his country’s history.
Benteke beat the previous record of 8.3 seconds, set by San Marino’s Davide Gualtieri against England in 1993.
Manchester United midfielder Paul Pogba scored a long-range effort as France won 1-0 in the Netherlands.
At Estadio Algarve in Portugal, Benteke pounced on a loose ball after the home side had kicked off and dribbled into the box before scoring with a left-footed shot.
Chelsea’s Eden Hazard was also on the scoresheet, along with Axel Witsel and Dries Mertens, as Roberto Martinez’s side won their third 2018 World Cup qualifier to maintain a 100% start.
In Amsterdam, Pogba’s 30th-minute goal means France top Group A ahead of Monday’s opponents and Sweden, who beat Bulgaria 3-0.
Meanwhile, Euro 2016 winners Portugal beat Faroe Islands 6-0 with FC Porto striker Andre Silva scoring a first-half hat-trick and Real Madrid forward Cristiano Ronaldo netting his 66th international goal.